The functional evolution of Hox1 proteins

Figure 1. The invertebrate labial gene got duplicated into HOXA1, B1, C1 and D1 during vertebrate evolution. The mouse HOXA1 has retained the ancestral function (blue) while HOXB1 (red) and HOXD1 (yellow) are neo-functionalized. The HOXC1 gene was lost in the mammalian lineage (dotted box). B) Different regions of HOXA1 protein are color coded from N to C terminal of the protein. The ancestral activity of HOXA1 protein is distributed across the protein (mentioned on the left side). The C-terminal motif region (CTM: red) is critical for the conserved ancestral activity while the DNA binding homeodomain (HD) and the linker region (LK) have moderate ancestral activity and the N-terminal has only a weak ancestral activity.

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